A Critique of the Extreme-Male-Brain Theory of Autism

by Rachel Cohen-Rottenberg

In his 1999 paper The extreme-male-brain theory of autism, Professor Simon Baron-Cohen posits a dichotomy between the empathizing female brain and the systematizing male brain. In Baron-Cohen’s theory, autistic people have extreme versions of the systematizing male brain.

Baron-Cohen begins his paper with an introduction characteristic of many articles about autism and autistic people:

“Autism is widely regarded to be the most severe of the childhood psychiatric conditions (Rutter, 1983; Frith, 1989; Baron-Cohen, 1995). It is diagnosed on the basis of abnormal social development, abnormal communicative development, and the presence of narrow, restricted interests, and repetitive activity, along with limited imaginative ability (DSMIV, 1994). Such children fail to become social, instead remaining on the periphery of any social group, and becoming absorbed in repetitive interests and activities, such as collecting unusual objects or facts. It is a tragedy for their families who work tirelessly to attempt to engage with and socialize their child, mostly with very limited results.” (Baron-Cohen 1999, 3)

Let’s consider the professor’s assumptions and omissions:

1) Baron-Cohen characterizes autism as “the most severe of the childhood psychiatric conditions.” However, autism is not a psychiatric condition, nor is it limited to children. It is a neurological condition with which we are born, and with which we live throughout our lives.

2) The professor describes autism mainly by pointing to external markers: social development, communicative development, and the presence of restricted interests and repetitive activity. The only mention of our internal processes is the remark that we have “limited imaginative ability,” which is not even the case in all instances. Take a look at the work of autistic artists all over the world and you will see a level of imagination that eludes most people, including professors at major universities.

However, the author’s omissions are even more telling than his words. Nowhere does he mention our sensory sensitivities, our unusual communicative or cognitive abilities, our capacity for rational thought, our empathy, our gifts, the love we feel for others, or any other process that goes on in the human mind and heart. To see autistic people only by external markers shows a significant lack of empathy in every sense of the word.

3) Autism is “a tragedy for…families who work tirelessly to attempt to engage with and socialize their child, mostly with very limited results.” Our very existence, apparently, is a tragedy. Autistic people, of course, have no feelings, no struggles, and no tragedies of our own. We just cause other people pain and suffering.

Once he gets done slandering us, Simon-Cohen adduces a number of questionable arguments for his extreme-male-brain theory—arguments with which he seeks to prove that autistic people have odd versions of male brains:

“(i) Normal males are superior in spatial tasks compared to normal females, and people with autism or Asperger Syndrome are even better on spatial tasks, such as the Embedded Figures Test (Jolliffe and Baron-Cohen, in press).” (Baron-Cohen 1999, 33)

Any difference in abilities between males and females can easily be explained not by brain structure, but by the ways in which girls are socialized and educated in western societies. The conclusion that neuro-typical males are innately superior to neuro-typical females in spatial tasks ignores the effects of culture, context, and socially imposed gender roles.

Moreover, many autistic people have very poor spatial abilities. I am autistic, but my spatial abilities are quite limited. I failed Calculus because I couldn’t rotate three-dimensional objects in my mind. I still can’t. My mind works only in two dimensions. I can see height and width, but not depth.

“(ii) There is a strong male bias in the sex ratio of autism or AS.” (Baron-Cohen 1999, 33)

As Tony Attwood and others have shown, female Aspies tend to have an entirely different presentation from males. The diagnostic criteria were developed from the results of studies using only males. All of Leo Kanner’s subjects and Hans Asperger’s subjects were boys. The male bias lies in the diagnostic markers, not in the condition of autism itself.

“(iii) Normal males are slower to develop language than normal females, and children with autism are even more delayed in language development (Rutter, 1978).” (Baron-Cohen 1999, 33)

People with Asperger’s, by definition, do not have language delays. Given that Asperger’s Syndrome is autism by a different name, and that more than half of all autistic people have Asperger’s, it’s impossible to make the claim that the language development of all autistic people is delayed.

“(iv) Normal males are slower to develop socially than normal females, and people with autism are even more delayed in social development (O’Riordan, Baron-Cohen, Jones, Stone, and Plaisted, 1996).” (Baron Cohen 1999, 33)

Baron-Cohen fails to question the reason for the lag in normative male social development. Is it nature or nurture? Since girls are socialized to cooperate, and boys are socialized to fight, it’s clear that nurture plays a large role in helping girls develop better social skills than their male counterparts.

“(v) Normal females are superior to males on mindreading tasks, and people with autism or AS are severely impaired in mindreading (see Baron-Cohen et al, 1996).”

It’s true that most people with autism cannot figure out the mental states of other people from nonverbal cues. It’s also true that Baron-Cohen, despite his obsession with the external behaviors of autistic people, is unable to figure out our mental states at all. Does that make him autistic? After all, he’s a man and he can’t read our minds.

I rest my case.

“(vi) Parents of children with autism or AS (who can be assumed to share the genotype of their child) also show superior spatial abilities and relative deficits in mindreading (i.e., a marked male brain pattern (Baron-Cohen and Hammer, in press b).”

If the female, non-autistic parent has superior spatial skills, doesn’t that disprove that such skills are inherently male?

“(vii) Normal males have a smaller corpus callosum than normal females, and people with autism or AS have an even smaller one (Egaas, Courchesne, and Saitou, 1994).”

A 1997 study by Professors Bishop and Wahlsten at the University of Alberta showed that, on average, the corpus callosum is larger in males, not smaller. According to the article, “Data collected before 1910 from cadavers indicate that, on average, males have larger brains than females and that the average size of their corpus callosum is larger…The recent studies, most of which used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), confirm the earlier findings of larger average brain size and overall corpus callosum size for males. The widespread belief that women have a larger splenium than men and consequently think differently is untenable.”

“(viii) Left handedness is more common among males, and people with autism or AS show an elevated incidence of left-handedness. Fein, Humes, Kaplan, Lucci, and Waterhouse (1984) found an 18% incidence of left-handedness in autism. Satz and colleagues (Satz, Soper, Orsini, Henry, and Zvi, 1985; Soper, Orsini, Henry, Zvi, and Schulman, 1986) found a very similar picture: in their autistic sample, 22% were left handed.”

I didn’t find any of the previous criteria compelling in the least, but now that we’re talking about left-handedness, I really have to give the professor his due.

Yes, my friends, I am left-handed and autistic.

Of course, my mother, who was also left handed, was not autistic. My father, who was not left-handed, was almost definitely autistic. And my mother’s parents, both of whom were left-handed, were neuro-typical. But why throw in such annoying details when the proof is sitting right in my left hand?

“(ix) In the normal population, the male brain is heavier than the female brain, and people with autism have even heavier brains than normal males (Bailey et al, 1994).”

Apparently, to Professor Baron-Cohen, size matters.

“(x) In the normal population, more males are found in mathematical/mechanical/spatial occupations than females. Parents of children with autism or AS are disproportionately represented in such occupations (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Bolton, Stott & Goodyer 1996). These occupations all require good folk physics whilst not necessarily requiring equally developed folk psychological skills.”

Like his first conclusion, his final one ignores the effects of culture and context. Girls are socialized and educated to follow paths that do not involve mathematical, mechanical, or spatial skills. No proof exists that females, by nature, find it difficult to acquire these skills. None.

In addition to the faulty evidence that Baron-Cohen adduces, there are three general problems with his theory:

1) He employs a dichotomy between the empathizing female brain and the systematizing male brain. Apparently, he has never considered the idea that systematizing and empathizing could exist in extreme measure in the same brain. His theory leaves out those of us who both systematize and empathize in non-normative ways.

For example, like many autistic people, I systematize constantly, and I also have extreme amounts of empathy. Where do I fit in his paradigm? Nowhere.

2) The theory assumes that our autistic brains are an odd version of non-autistic brains. Baron-Cohen doesn’t consider the obvious fact that autistic brain development and cognitive abilities are substantially different from those of neuro-typical people. He takes a brain structure that he considers “normal” (i.e. his own), and then he decides that any other type of brain must simply be a variation of the norm.

3) Baron-Cohen utterly ignores the fact that men are socialized to be analytical, practical, and unemotional, while women are socialized to be intuitive, emotional, and sensitive. Because Baron-Cohen, like many of his peers in the academic and scientific communities, remains oblivious to the cultural context in which he operates, many autistic women still go undiagnosed. We’re just not “male” enough to show up on his radar.

Like the insult that autistic people lack empathy, a theory that leaves autistic women undiagnosed is not simply wrong. It has serious consequences for our well-being.

In my opinion, most autism “experts” fail to understand autism. The academics and scientists who study us, observe us, test us, and wring their hands over us are neuro-typical. Therefore, they cannot intuitively understand our internal processes and experiences. The best of them listen and learn. The worst of them publish incorrect—and damaging—conclusions.

For my own part, I’ve gotten the best information from other autistic people. We are the true experts on autism. Just as even the most sensitive man cannot be an expert on what it’s like to be a woman, so even the most sensitive neuro-typical person cannot be an expert on what it’s like to be autistic. It’s simple neurology. It can’t be done.

© 2009 by Rachel Cohen-Rottenberg


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